The Radiologist Eye
The Eyes sees what the Mind knows.
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Rotary atlantoaxial dislocation
PRIMARY CNS LYMPHOMA
OSTEOID ISTEOMA OF ACETABULAR CUP
DENSITY ? CORTEX
CLOUD-LIKE AND LINEAR MINERALIZATION
LARGE AMOUNT OF NON-MINERALIZED TISSUE
HIGH GRADE SURFACE OSTEOSARCOMA
Benign bone forming tumors that arise from the outer table of calvarium
MELORHEOSTOSIS; LEFT ILIAC WING
RT Changes: Chronic FIBROSIS
HEP ART ANEURYSM
patient with MM and spinal
involvement shows compression fracture of a myelomatous L5 vertebra.
1.MM often shows characteristic "punched out" lytic lesions in the skull.
2.However, as these lesions in the humerus show, it is frequently impossible to distinguish between MM and lytic metastases.
Calcifying peritoneal mets.cystadenoma ovary Ca
There is extensive amorphous calcification throughout the abdomen. It extends from pelvis, but includes a line of densities lateral and below the liver. The
liver appears outlined by the calcifications.
A similar 'negative' impression in the calcifications can be seen in the form and location of the
caecum, transverse colon, occasional small-bowel loops and a vaguely round defect immediately above the left femoral canal that might be sigmoid colon.
In the para-spinal region, there are occasional densities that resemble the position of
as well as transverse colon.
of the liver on non-contrast CT are typically low attenuation lesions which on post-contrast scans demonstrate peripheral, nodular enhancement that follows the blood pool of the aorta and fills in centrally on later series. Hepatic hemangiomas which are larger than 4 cm are
termed "giant hemangiomas" and are more likely to rupture
CT demonstrates innumerable, non-enhancing, lesions throughout the liver, with attenuation and signal like that of cysts.
Of note there are no cysts in the kidneys or pancreas.
MRI shows innumerable cystic lesions throughout the liver. These range in size from a few millimeters to 2.5 cm in diameter. There appear to be several areas of
minimal to mild dilatation of bile ducts throughout the liver.
Several of the cyst appear to communicate with adjacent dilated ducts. There is no instrinsic intra or extrahepatic duct dilatation.
Multiple biliary hamartomas
Caroli's disease Hepatic cysts in association with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease Metastatic disease to the liver Hepatic microabscesses
is an unusual variant of chronic cholecystitis, characterized by a lipid-laden inflammatory process comparable to xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Imaging studies show marked gallbladder wall thickening, often containing intramural nodules that are hypoechoic at sonography and hypoattenuating at CT, representing abscesses or foci of xanthogranulomatous inflammation. These features overlap with those of gallbladder carcinoma, making preoperative distinction between these entities often impossible .
Axial CT Scan
. Neurofibromatosis with bilateral optic nerve gliomas.
Orbital blowout fractures may be isolated or a part of a combination injury
The above axial maximum-intensity projection slab from a CT cerebral angiogram shows dilatation of both superior ophthalmic veins and engorgement of the cavernous sinuses. The appearance is consistent with caroticocavernous fistula.
Midline nasopharyngeal cyst of homogeneous high T2 signal was incidentally found on MRI brain. It is well circumscribed, embedded within nasopharyngeal mucosa between prevertebral muscles. Thornwaldt cysts are benign developmental nasopharyngeal cysts covered by mucosa anteriorly and bounded by longus muscles posteriorly
congenital aural dysplasia, or microtia, this condition is characterised by bony atresia of the external auditory canal (EAC) and a dysplastic auricle. Findings in the middle ear are variable and the inner ear and internal auditory canal are typically normal.
This lateral skull xray demonstrates many of the changes of Paget's disease, with areas of lysis, areas of sclerosis ('cotton-wool spots'), and calvarial thickening.
Scimitar syndrome is characterised by a hypoplastic lung that is drained by an anomalous vein into the systemic venous system. It is essentially a combination of pulmonary hypoplasia and partial anomalous pulmonary venous return. It almost exclusively occurs on the right side. The haemodynamics are that of an acyanotic left to right shunt. The anomalous vein most commonly drains into the IVC, right atrium or portal vein. The lung is frequently perfused by the aorta, but the bronchial tree is still connected and thus the lung is not sequestered. CXR findings are that of a small lung with ipsilateral mediastinal shift, and in one third of cases the anomalous draining vein may be seen as a tubular structure paralleling the right heart border in the shape of a Turkish sword ("scimitar"). Scimitar syndrome is associated with congenital heart disease, ipsilateral diaphragmatic anomalies and vertebral anomalies.
The appearances in the right hand are classical for reflex sympathetic dystrophy, or Sudeck's atrophy, and include:
1. Pronounced demineralization of the bones, particularly in the periarticular region.
2. No joint involvement.
3. Associated soft tissue atrophy. This condition has been recently renamed the "complex regional pain syndrome".
The FLAIR MR image above shows changes typical of central pontine myelinolysis. Also known as osmotic demyelination, central pontine myelinololysis is an acute demylination of the white matter tracts traversing the pons, seen in the setting of sudden osmotic changes, typically the rapid correction of hyponatraemia. Occasionally extrapontine white matter is also affected, in the basal ganglia, mid brain and subcortical white matter.
Bismuth type II cholangiocarcinoma invasion of CHD, RHD & LHD.
SB INTRALUMINAL HEMATOMA
SPLENIC ARTERY ANEURYSM
B/L COXA VARA & EPIPHYSEAL STIPPLED IRRREGULARITY. CONGENITAL HYPOTHYROIDISM
Differential diagnosis of cerebral hemiatrophy
Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome. Rasmussen Encephalitis. Sturge Weber Syndrome. Hemimegalencephaly.
total right ICA occlusion- collateral flow across the contralateral ICA to the ACA and across the ACA
inSULINOMA IN PANCREATIC HEAD